The 10 Turkish lira note has math on it. I was inordinately amused by this when I discovered it yesterday, totally by accident when my girlfriend was showing me some money she picked up on a layover in Istanbul. In particular it includes a picture of Cahit Arf, whose work I am not familiar with but who appears to be one of the great Turkish mathematicians. This was basically domestic nerd sniping.
For more thorough coverage, see Jacob Bourjaily’s scientists and mathematicians on money. You may also be interested in purchasing portraits of Gauss. Newton was on the one-pound note when there was such a thing; the Euler ten-Swiss-franc note is out of print. Bourjaily collects notes with scientists and mathematicians on them and has a list of what he’s looking for; perhaps you can help him out?